About EU projectsSurvival KitOther PM resourcesProject informationContact
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This com- munication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

PM literature & links

Here you will find useful links and literature on different aspects of European project mangement:

Project management and leadership in projects (general)

Sanjiv Augustine and Susan Woodcock (2003), Agile Project Management

An inspiring essay on the principles of Agile Management. In clear language the difference between traditional and Agile project management approaches is highlighted.

Kenneth H. Blanchard, Drea Zigarmi , Patricia Zigarmi (2000), Leadership and the One-Minute Manager. Increasing Effectiveness through Situational Leadership.
Kenneth H. Blanchard, Paul Hersey, Dewey E. Johnson (9th edition 2000). Management of Organizational Behavior– Utilizing Human Resources.

Classics on leadership and management, in particular the concept of situational leadership which may also be useful for Multilateral Projects. The concept is built upon two fundamental principles; leadership style and the group's level of maturity.

 David I. Cleland, Roland Gareis (Eds.) (2006), Global Project Management. Planning, Organizing, and Controlling International Projects.

Kathleen B. Hass (2007), The Blending of Traditional and Agile Project Management, in PM World Today - May 2007 (Vol. IX, Issue V).

IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB- IPMA Competence Baseline Version 3.0

An internationally acknowledged competence framework for project managers. The International Project Management Association (IPMA), founded in Europe in 1967, has forty national project organisations as members. IPMA Competence Baseline describes the 46 competence areas of a project manager (technical, behavioural, contextual) and provides certification at different levels.

Bennet P. Lientz, Kathryn P. Rea (2002), Project Management for the 21st Century.

Office of Learning Technologies Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) (2003), Introduction to Project Management Principles

Short and readable introduction to the basics of project management, useful for newcomers.

PMI (2008), A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBoK Guide Fourth Edition.

Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge is the most widely acknowledged project management standard and generally accepted as central reference document. It is published by the project management institute PMI (www.pmi.org)


 PRINCE2® is a process-based approach for project management providing an easily tailored and scalable method for the management of all types of projects. It is owned by the UK Government's Office of Government Commerce but has grown to become a truly international methodology with the core publications available in a variety of languages.

 Project Smart

A commercial project management resource with an up-to-date commentary on the latest methodologies and ideas.  Also contains a range of tools and templates for download, some of them free.

T-kit 3: Project management
T-kit 9: Funding and financial management

The T-kit series has been jointly developed by the Council of Europe and the European Commission for the youth sector. The publications are not geared towards the Lifelong Learning Programme, so some funding programme related information has to be treated with caution. Nevertheless the kits include some useful materials for any type of European project work.

University of Hull, Project Management Resources

Resources for an Introduction to Project Management module assembled by Andrew G. Holmes, Academic Co-ordinator for Work Related Learning in the Centre for Lifelong Learning at the University of Hull. These materials (including PowerPoint presentations, handouts, forms and web links) are available to all but users outside of the University of Hull should acknowledge Andrew Holmes as the author or source.


Management of EU-funded projects

Holger Bienzle, Esther Gelabert, Wolfgang Jütte, Katerina Kolyva, Nick Meyer, Guy Tilkin (2007): The Art of Networking: European Networks in Education.
Holger Bienzle, Leena Ferogh, Esther Gelabert, Wolfgang Jütte, Katerina Kolyva, Nick Meyer, Tim Scholze, Guy Tilkin, Sabine Wiemann(2009), Resource Pack for Networkers.

Networks and the process of networking are integral to any international project. These two publications, developed in two projects funded by the LLP, provide guidance, learning and management tools for successfully acting in European networks and steering them.

 City Learning Net,  EU project guides

The City Learning Net was established in 2005 in Girona, Catalonia. It is an informal network working together in lifelong learning projects. Jan Gejel, the network co-ordinator has published four EU project guides with valuable recommendations.

 ECOTEC (2008), Final Evaluation of the Socrates II Programme 2000-2006: Annex to the Joint Report (C3318).

The report presents the findings of the ex-post evaluation of the Socrates II programme 2000-2006, the predecessor to the Lifelong Learning Programme.

 ECOTEC (2003), Transnational Partnership Guidance Note for Leonardo da Vinci Projects

Education, Audiovisual & Culture Executive Agency (EACEA), LLP website:

The Executive Agency is in charge of the operational management of Multilateral Projects in the LLP. On this website all relevant information about Calls for Proposals and the implementation of already funded Multilateral Projects can be found.

European Commission (2004), Aid Delivery Methods, Volume 1: Project Cycle Management Guidelines.

Project Cycle Management (PCM) is a project management approach adopted by many EU funding programmes, above all in development aid. Although the LLP does not follow the PCM approach the Logical Framework Matrix may be a useful planning approach.

 European Commission, DG EAC, LLP website

The European Commission (Directorate General for Education and Culture) is responsible for ensuring the effective and efficient implementation of the LLP as a whole.

European Commission (2009), Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) Guide 2010. Part I: General provisions

European Commission, Practical Guidelines for LLP Erasmus Coordinators. How to Assure a Successful Project Start-up

Short, informal checklist of the most important steps to take in the starting phase of an Erasmus project for an effective start-up and successful project implementation.

European Platform for Dutch Education (2005), Grundtvig Learning Partnerships Navigator

Easy-to-read, light project management guide book for small-scale partnerships in the Lifelong learning Programme, includes many practical recommendations.

Jan-Peter Kastelein and Mathew Ross (2004), Handbook Virtual Teamwork. Making Co-operation Work in Leonardo da Vinci Projects. Information, Theory and Practical Tips

KEYLINKS project: www.keylinks.eu

This project, funded by the Lifelong Learning Programme, aims at standardising the competences of a EU project manager. Based on a survey among project actors creating a competence profile and published a curriculum and competence framework which covers the main management and leadership tasks in all phases of an EU-funded project.

List of National Agencies of the LLP

Although not directly responsible for the implementation of Multilateral Projects the National Agencies are important interfaces between the funding programme and co-ordinators and partners of Multilateral Projects. They can give advice and support with the dissemination and exploitation of results.

Krewer Consult GmbH and Kooperationsstelle Hamburg (2000), Managing International Projects. How to Promote Co-operation of Multicultural Project Groups. A Workbook Introducing Experiences, Cases, Self Tests, Advice, Links.

Project Management publication developed in the framework of PROINNO, an Accompanying Measure funded by the European Commission’s Innovation Programme. As the sub-title states, it is based on case studies of real projects and contains many practical management materials.


Intercultural Elements in European Project Management

Milton J. Bennet (2002), A Developmental Approach to Training for Intercultural Sensitivity, in International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume 10, Issue 2, 1986, 179-196.

Dean C. Barnlund (1962), Towards a Meaning-Centered Philosophy of Communication, in Journal of Communication 11, 198-202.

European Commission (2004), EQUAL Guide on Gender Mainstreaming

European Diploma in Intercultural Competence (EDICC) project: www.edicc.eu

 For those who want to learn more about intercultural communication and intercultural management, a network of universities and organisations from seven countries offering a European Diploma on Intercultural Competence. The website also provides contacts in institutions offering training programmes on intercultural communication.

Victor J. Friedman and Ariane Berthoin Antal (2005), Negotiating Reality. A Theory of Action Approach to Intercultural Competence, in Management Learning, Vol. 36, No. 1, 69-86.

Howard Giles, and Tania Ogay (2006), Communication Accommodation Theory, in B. B. Whalen & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining Communication: Contemporary Theories and Exemplars

William Gudykunst (2004), Theorizing About Intercultural Communication.

INTERtool project, Virtual Intercultural Team Tool: www.intertool.eu

 The website provides access to a publication and a virtual community of educators interested in exchanging information about the management of diversity in European projects, as well as access to the Virtual Intercultural Team Tool, a virtual platform aiming at assisting European project teams to improve intercultural communication and build on their cultural diversity for an effective implementation of their projects. It includes a Kick-off Tool, a Monitoring Tool, an Evaluation Tool, as well as a ‘Raise an issue’ function. 

Geert Hofstede (2001), Culture's Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations.

Joe Luft and Harry Ingham (1955), The Johari Window, a Graphic Model of Interpersonal Awareness. Proceedings of the Western Training Laboratory in Group Development.

Open Windows: www.openwindows.se

 Two practical tools, available online for free, allow teams members to get to know each other, using a model inspired by Johari Window model, and provides a team relationships inventory, useful for enhancing team development and reduce risks of intercultural misunderstandings. Available in Swedish, English and Portuguese.

SALTO publications: http://www.salto-youth.net/publicationsCD/

Website of the network of eight resource centres working on European priority areas within the youth field. SALTO has published a number of useful documents on intercultural and diversity issues, which can be downloaded for free.

Beate Schmidt-Behlau (Ed.) (2009), SOS. Culture Communication Tool Kit. Guidance materials for European Project Leaders and Teams.

 Guidance publication on intercultural aspects of European project work in education. The publication was developed by the team of the Grundtvig project INTERtool. It is based on a needs analysis among Grundtvig project actors.

Helen Spencer-Oatey (2000), Culturally Speaking: Managing Rapport Through Talk Across Cultures.

Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner (1998), Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business.

weReurope project: www.wereurope.eu 

 A website produced in the framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme and including some tools (such as the virtual carpet of symbols and memories) and suggestions to reflect on diversity and intercultural dialogue in Europe.


ICT Tools for European Project Work

Craig Baker, Khaled El-Sayed, Robson Nyereyemhuka, Elizabeth Ombija, Jamie Tang (2009), The Effective Use of Technology to Improve Communication in Virtual Teams, Organizational Leadership and Management.

The paper addresses issues such as how virtual teams communicate, what tools they use, how effective they are, what problems they face and how technology can be employed to create an environment that facilitates effective communication regardless of the team size, location, purpose or the length of its existence. It also formulates a number of practical suggestions for managers of virtual teams.

Lyn Brodie (2009), Virtual Teamwork and PBL - Barriers to Participation and Learning. Proceedings of the Research in Engineering Education Symposium.

The paper identifies and discusses several barriers to student participation and learning in a university course based on virtual teams and which has run for 7 years, with several courses per year. It presents conclusions of its evaluation, indicating success in meeting key learning objectives and in forming learning communities. A model is proposed which maps student engagement and learning in virtual teams.

Deborah L. Duarte, Nancy Tennant Snyder (2001), Mastering Virtual Teams: Strategies, Tools, and Techniques That Succeed.

A toolkit for managers and members of virtual teams, it includes guidelines, strategies and best practices for working cross-culturally, across time and distance to get a project through. A CD with resources is also included.

EuroPACE ivzw. (2006), European Co-operation in Education through Virtual Mobility – A Best Practice Manual

Coleen Garton & Kevin Wegryn (2006), Managing without walls. Maximize Success with Virtual, Global and Cross-cultural Teams.
Starting with outlining the skills of an effective manager of a virtual team, the book addresses topics such as virtual teamwork, time management, effective virtual communication, virtual leadership, and includes a set of checklists of various types of skills of an effective virtual manager.

Jaclyn Kostner (1996), Virtual Leadership: Secrets from the Round Table for the Multi-Site Manager.

The book is focussed on providing suggestions for overcoming challenges raised by working in virtual teams, for increasing virtual leadership power, for establishing trust and uniting people who do not share a common physical work space, and for using ICT as a bridge between team members.

Jessica Lipnack & Jeffrey Stamps (2000), Virtual Teams: Reaching Across Space, Time, and Organizations with Technology.

Beginning with an overview of what virtual teams are and how they work, the authors rely on examples from the work of multinational companies to provide information on virtual teams principles (people, purpose, links), on the skills and technology necessary to make successful virtual teams and on supporting the dynamics of virtual communication.

Jill Nemiro, Michael M. Beyerlein , Lori Bradley , Susan Beyerlein (Eds.) (2008), The Handbook of High Performance Virtual Teams: A Toolkit for Collaborating Across Boundaries.

A collection of papers dealing with various aspects of enhancing performance of virtual teams, from management and managing challenges, to developing trust, managing emotions and stimulating creativity.

Kresimir Pripuzic, Luko Gjenero, Hrvoje Belani, (2006) Improving Virtual Team Communication. International Conference on Software in Telecommunications and Computer Networks, 266-270.

The authors underline that, while the management of virtual teams become a necessary feature in large projects (they focus on software development projects), trust is required for effective team communication. They present a software tool aimed at enhancing co-operative work and support to virtual team communication.

Jamie S. Switzer (2004), Virtual Teams. In Hossein Bidgoli, The Internet Encyclopedia, Volume 3.

One of the over 200 articles of the Internet encyclopedia, the article on Virtual Teams provides a definition and describes the main features of this concept and provides an overview of the main challenges associated to the work in a virtual team.

Sonja Valjus (2002), Virtual Mobility in Reality. A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects


Quality and evaluation

Wolfgang Beywl (Editor) (2002), Selected Comments to the Standards for Evaluation of the German Evaluation Society

This paper consists of an introduction followed by the Evaluation Standards .(http://www.degeval.de/calimero/tools/proxy.php?id=19084) themselves and some guidance about how they could be applied. They are useful reading both for evaluators and for those who need to commission evaluations. The complete booklet is available in German from: http://www.degeval.de/standards/

Evaluating a Network, in: Holger Bienzle, Esther Gelabert, Wolfgang Jütte, Katerina Kolyva, Nick Meyer, Guy Tilkin (2007), The Art of Networking: European Networks in Education, 96-110

Network Evaluation, in: Holger Bienzle, Leena Ferogh, Esther Gelabert, Wolfgang Jütte, Katerina Kolyva, Nick Meyer, Tim Scholze, Guy Tilkin, Sabine Wiemann(2009), Resource Pack for Networkers, 63-68

 Networks and the process of networking are integral to international projects. These publications provide a guide to networks and their typical processes with a specific chapter looking at evaluation from the perspective of the network. Practical instruments for the evaluation of networks are included in the Resource Pack.

Council of Europe and European Commission (2007), T-Kit 10: Educational Evaluation in Youth Work.

CYFERnet website: http://www.cyfernet.org

CYFERnet is a US network of educators working to support community-based educational programmes for children, youth, parents and families. The website contains plenty of useful links and resources for evaluation.

Rick Davies, Jess Dart (2005), The ‘Most Significant Change’ (MSC) Technique
A Guide to Its Use.

A free and detailed guide covering both the practicalities and theory of Most Significant Change methodology. This is useful for a detailed consideration of the methodology or for those who simply intend to use it as one of a number of approaches to evaluation.

ECOTEC (2002), Evaluation Guidance Note for Leonardo Projects

Meg Gawler (2005), Useful Tools for Engaging Young People in Participatory Evaluation. UNICEF CEE/CIS Regional Office

Get-in Project: Gender, Ethnicity and Integration through international school projects (2007), Manual for International School Project:

This manual was produced to support schools working on international projects with intercultural themes aimed at encouraging the participation of ethnic minority pupils.
It contains useful advice on intercultural work and some especially clear guidance on evaluating projects in the chapter ‘What makes a good project?’

W.K. Kellogg Foundation (1998), Evaluation Handbook

This handbook provides a framework for thinking about evaluations and the steps necessary to plan and conduct them. It contains enough information for programme staff to plan and conduct an evaluation with or without the assistance of an external evaluator.

Online survey tools:
Survey Monkey: http://www.surveymonkey.com/

A basic but free survey designer (with a charge for other services). Users can select from over a dozen types of questions (multiple choice, rating scales, drop-down menus) for internet- based surveys.

SurveyGizmo: http://www.surveygizmo.com
Polldaddy: http://polldaddy.com/

Self-Evaluation in Adult Life Long Learning (SEALLL) project: http://www.sealll.eu

 The project team envisaged self-evaluation as a developmental tool which can be applied by learners, teachers, developers and project managers. It produced a downloadable manual with guidance and many practical tools for self-evaluation.

Sir John Whitmore (2002, 3rd Edition), Coaching For Performance, Growing People, Performance and Purpose.

The GROW model featured in this book was developed by Sir John Whitmore and is probably the best-known coaching model in the UK. Many coach training programmes use this model as the framework for developing the coaching relationship and this model can have an important part to play in both project monitoring and evaluating. 

Felicity Woolf (2004), Partnerships for Learning: A Guide to Evaluating Arts Education Projects, Arts Council England

This document has been used by thousands of arts organisations and practitioners as a framework to reflect on their projects and draw out valuable lessons. Arts-based projects are difficult to evaluate and the publication aims to provide a flexible framework, which can be applied in many different situations and used to evaluate short or more extended projects. This is why it has also proved to be such a valuable starting point for evaluating international projects.

Hallie Preskill, Nathalie Jones (2009), A Practical Guide for Engaging Stakeholders in Developing Evaluation Questions

This guide aims to assist evaluators in the process of engaging stakeholders with a view to increase the value and usefulness of evaluation.


Dissemination and exploitation of results

Making a Network Sustainable, in Holger Bienzle, Esther Gelabert, Wolfgang Jütte, Katerina Kolyva, Nick Meyer, Guy Tilkin (2007), The Art of Networking, European Networks in Education, 11-127.

Making the Network Sustainable, in Holger Bienzle, Leena Ferogh, Esther Gelabert, Wolfgang Jütte, Katerina Kolyva, Nick Meyer, Tim Scholze, Guy Tilkin, Sabine Wiemann(2009), Resource Pack for Networkers, 77-80.

These publications are about networks in education, and about networks funded by the Lifelong Learning Programme in particular. They contain chapters with introductory texts and training materials on dissemination and sustainability and a collection of training materials and practical tools which can also be useful for Multilateral Projects.

ECOTEC Research & Consulting Ltd. (2008), Sharing Success – A Dissemination and Exploitation Handbook for Everyone Involved in the Lifelong Learning Programme.

The guide provides an introduction to dissemination and exploitation activities for individual participants and projects funded by the LLP programme.

European Commission (1997), Intellectual Property-Guidelines for Promoters of Training Projects.

European Commission (2006), European Quality Kit. Striving for Better Quality in Grundtvig Projects

Document developed for Grundtvig, listing networks, associations, internet platforms and journals important for the dissemination of projects results in the field of adult education.  

European Commission, DG for Education and Culture: Valorisation webpage:

Official website of the European Commission on dissemination and exploitation of results of projects funded by EU programmes on education and training.

European InfoNet Adult Education: www.infonet-ae.eu

Grundtvig network providing information about current developments in adult education. InfoNet regularly reports about interesting European projects. The articles are translated into different languages, can be downloaded from a database and are used by adult education journalists in the journals and publications they write for.

JISC dissemination documents:
Dissemination plan
Dissemination methods

JISC is a UK expert network which gives support to the education and research communities On their website they provide useful guidance materials for dissemination.

QaS- Quality and Sustainability, Project Support Quality and Sustainability:

A joint project between the National Agencies of The Czech Republic, France, Sweden and the UK, which provide a collection of practical tools for school and adult education projects for enhancing quality and sustainability mainly in the partnership projects, contains e.g. a guide on project management, dissemination guide. Brings together many new ideas on sustainability plus a focus on practical tips.

Theo Reubsaet (2005), Valorisation Down to Earth - Guidance Through the Obstinate Context of Leonardo da Vinci Projects. Experiences and Tips from the Working Practice

A guidance publication on dissemination and exploitation issues, it gives many examples of how Leonardo projects have addressed different aspects of valorisation.JISC is a UK expert network which gives support to the education and research communities On their website they provide useful guidance materials for dissemination.

SALTO Inclusion (2007), Making Waves. Creating More Impact with Your Youth Projects

Sustain project (2000), Socrates ODL/Minerva Dissemination Guide

Riitta Suurla, Markku Marttila (1998), Methods and Tools for Effective Dissemination. A Guide to the Dissemination of Results of International Educational Projects

Markkula & Suurla have developed five different tools for systematically planning dissemination. The five tools planning dissemination have been placed in a dissemination wheel, to point out the importance of continuous movement, change and progress. In addition some ideas are provided on how to plan the dissemination jointly with the partners during a partner meeting.